Abstract Background There is flat hives causes information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation.
Methods We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising flat hives causes, traditional agriculture. We used photos, held semi-structured interviews, and conducted picture sorting.
Results We documented invertebrate folk taxa. Many species were known which have, to our knowledge, no economic significance. Knowledge reliability was high, although informants were sometimes prone to exaggeration. Twenty four species were of direct use to humans 4 medicinal, 5 consumed, 11 as bait, 2 as playthings.
Completely new was the discovery that the honey stomachs of black-coloured carpenter bees Xylocopa violacea, X. Conscious ideas about conserving invertebrates only occurred with a few taxa, but informants would generally refrain from harming firebugs Pyrrhocoris apterusfield crickets Gryllus campestris and most butterflies.
We did not find any mythical creatures among invertebrate folk taxa. Almost every invertebrate species was regarded as basically harmful. Where possible, they were destroyed or at least regarded as worth eradicating.
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- Seborrheic dermatitis pikkelysmr kezels
- Aki meggyógyította a fejbőr pikkelysömörét
- Indication Abdominal cramps Constrictive intermittent abdominal discomfort resulting from the spasm of an internal organ.
- The acute form, probably most often caused by food allergies, subsides in 6—24 hours, but the chronic form, believed to be due to emotional and mental stress, lasts much longer.
However, we could find flat hives causes evidence to suggest any invertebrate species had suffered population loss as a result of conscious destruction. Sometimes knowledge pertaining to the taxa could have more general relevance, and be regarded as folk wisdom concerning the functioning of nature as a whole. Conclusions The high number of known invertebrate folk taxa suggests that it would be worth conducting further investigations in other areas of Europe.
Keywords: Ethnozoology, Flat hives causes, Invertebrate fauna, Ethnomedicine, Nature protection, Edible insects Go to: Background Traditional knowledge systems about the landscape and the biota have been fundamental for human development since the times of pre-modern and pre-industrial societies in Europe.
Humans living in close contact with the landscape as herdsmen and peasants have long possessed unified, systematic knowledge, including folk taxonomies, about phenomena that were of importance to them. The use and management of natural resources was based on centuries-old, often millennia-old ecological experience, on multi-generational knowledge passed down from generation to generation [ 12 ].
Ethnozoology is the scientific study of the dynamic relationships among people, and animals.
Traditional ethnozoological knowledge has great cultural and economical importance. It is widely studied in the tropics and North America e. Wild animal-based natural resources are often among the key resources local communities depend on [ 89 flat hives causes. A major goal of these communities is to use and manage these resources sustainably e. Long-term sustainability in the use and management of natural resources requires healthy ecosystems, while at the same time, sustainable management often contributes to maintaining the health of ecosystems [ 1314 ].
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The knowledge passed by local traditional communities, however, not only serves sustainable use and maintenance of the local community and its environment but may also provide valuable data, information and knowledge to science and conservation.
Among the potential benefits of traditional ecological knowledge, it can help science to recognize new species e. There is no reason to imagine that European peasant and herder communities differ fundamentally from native societies in other parts of the world with regard to their ecological knowledge [ 24 ].
- Если она не окажется слишком большой.
- Mi a pikkelysmr orvosa
- Fenistil gél pikkelysömör vélemények
- Они не удовлетворяли его и раньше, а теперь выглядели вдвойне неприятно; он более не мог ими гордиться.
However, there is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna, including their use in healing and nutrition. Researchers in ethnobiology seldom pay attention to invertebrates in the European context [ 25 ]. By contrast, several comprehensive studies have been conducted in other parts of the world.
As early asStearns published an ethnoconchological work on the use of shells as money among aboriginals of North America [ 26 ].
This study gives a full list of animals, including invertebrates, by order and gives their Tewa names as well as their scientific names [ 28 ]. In a comprehensive study Bodenheimer [ 29 ] reviewed the ethnographical literature of the use of insects as food worldwide.
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Nowadays there are several important studies available dealing with ethnobiological aspects of invertebrates. We can, for instance, mention Bentley and Rodríguez [ 30 ] on the entire invertebrate fauna of Honduras, and Krause et al.
Gurung [ 32 ] detailed the knowledge of arthropods among Tharu farmers in Nepal, while Hemp [ 33 ] described what the peoples living near Mount Kilimanjaro Tanzania knew about invertebrates. A particularly impressive ethnozoological study is Morris [ 34 ], dealing with the impact of insects and their classification in Malawi folk culture.
In addition, the literature on aquatic and coastal-marine invertebrates is particularly rich e. The general experience is that many invertebrate species have specific and relevant benefits or detriments, although the number of locally known folk taxa is higher than this [ 31 ].
Some culturally salient invertebrate species may even be important keystone species in the lives of certain communities. The majority of these are coastal-marine invertebrates e. There are fewer culturally salient species among terrestrial invertebrates, and relatively few species have basiangao pikkelysömör kenőcs folk uses cf.
Keystone species include, among spiders for example, the bird-eating spiders for Afro-Brazilians in Bahia [ 41 ], while among lepidopterans there is the Brahmaeid moth on Taiwan [ 42 ].
European folk knowledge about invertebrates has, since the nineteenth century, been flat hives causes mostly by folklorists and linguists.
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In —80 the Swedish author Strindberg used a questionnaire to gather valuable data regarding folk names and rhymes connected with the ladybird. His research, using mapping as a method, is a pioneering work in folklore about animals [ 43 ]. An encyclopedia was published about Romanian insect folklore, including local names, legends, fables and myths, the role of insects in witchcraft, and beliefs about insects as pests or as omens [ 44 ]. Herman published the local names of insects and invertebrate pest species known by Hungarian herders [ 45 ].
We can also mention an interesting article on folk knowledge about botflies Oestridae found as parasites on domesticated reindeer, published by the ethnographer and linguist Wiklund [ 46 ]. This kind of ethnographic folklore-linguistic research tradition continues today in Europe. Wiggen, for instance, inspired by current ethnobiologists, has recently published an exciting study on the traditional names of lower animals flat hives causes Norway [ 47 ].
In European cultures, it is generally quite uncommon to use or consume invertebrates [ 4849 ]. The only invertebrates with any significant ethnobiological literature are for the taxa of snails [ 50 ], slugs [ 51 ], leeches [ 52 ], ladybirds [ 6 ], crustaceans [ 53 ], oil beetles [ 54 ] and head lice [ 55 ], but none of these are cultural keystone species. InSvanberg [ 57 ] published a small book with ethnozoological studies on the flat hives causes relationship with bumblebees, earthworms, froghoppers, isopods, liver flukes, moonjellies and starfish in Scandinavia and Estonia.
There is of course extensive biological literature on pests, but very little detailed documentation of folk knowledge has yet been carried out in Europe [ 5859 ]. We are, however, of the opinion that further data may exist in local languages, in works on ethnography, local history and perhaps even linguistics, but these have not yet entered the international ethnobiological literature e.
There is also very little Hungarian literature on folk knowledge of invertebrates. Linguistic dialecticethnographic and ethnobiological literature is available concerning invertebrate species in the Sóvidék region in Transylvania [ 61 ], 67 taxa along the Danube [ 62 ], the beetle taxa Melolontha melolontha, Lucanus cervus and Lytta vesicatoria [ 63 ], and the flat hives causes species Helix spp.
Sporadic data may also appear in ethnographic and linguistic literature written in the Hungarian language, for example in monographs on farming and forest ethnography, e. To date, nothing has been published in English about the folk knowledge of invertebrates of the Carpathian Basin. Our article has the objective of presenting the Hungarian folk knowledge of invertebrate species uncovered in three areas of the Carpathian Basin in Romania, Slovakia, and Croatiaincluding: a list of folk taxa of invertebrates, their folk biological classifications and nomenclatures, their salient features, and their uses, related pikkelysömör a kezek kezelsre and sayings, and their conservation.
This is the first article in Europe to deal comprehensively flat hives causes an entire invertebrate fauna.
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The folk knowledge, nomenclature and uses of taxa are presented in detail. The high number of known folk taxa suggests that it would be worth conducting further investigations in other areas of Europe. Methods Study areas We collected data among ethnic Hungarians practising small-scale, traditional agriculture.
As the people we studied spend a lot of time in the fields and forests during their everyday activities, they still have a close, direct connection to their natural environment.
The settlements where the data were collected, each with between and inhabitants, are characterised by a large amount of abandoned agricultural land, and by ageing populations. The mean annual temperature in the two northern areas is 8—8.
The elevation is 75—90 m. Gemer and Sălaj typically have closed broadleaved forests oakwhile in Baranja there is a mixture of riparian vegetation, marshland and mixed hardwood gallery forests oak, ash and elm.
Data collection and analysis Data was collected in Sălaj in summerand in Baranja and Gemer in summer In each area, the objective was to identify and interview local people with the most extensive knowledge.
In total we interviewed 58 people. The overall average age of the interviewees was 75 years within a range from 36 to 90 yearsand the regional average ages were 78 in Sălaj, 74 in Baranja, and 71 in Gemer. All the flat hives causes retained memories of traditional forest flat hives causes and smallholder farming, and some were still practitioners.
We conducted indoor interviews recorded on a dictaphone approximately 88 h of recordingsince the presentation of living specimens and direct observation of animals in the wild would have been greatly inconvenient for most of the informants. Prior informed consent was obtained before all the interviews, and ethical guidelines suggested by the International Society of Ethnobiology were followed.
We placed an average of 12 photos of species of similar habitat and size on a sheet of A4 paper, to give interviewees a sense of the context and relative size of each taxon. In many instances during our preliminary study, the differing scale of the pictures had greatly inhibited recognition.
Where ambiguous descriptions occurred, further enquiries of the characteristics of the species in question were made in order to facilitate identification of the animal at the finest possible taxonomic level.